(funded by DOE)
This project develops algorithms that will enable scientists and engineers to readily model complex flow processes in porous media taking into account the accompanying deformations of the porous solids. Fluid motion and solid deformation are inherently coupled, but current major commercial packages for multiphase flow in porous media only model porous flow while solid deformation is normally integrated into a study in an ad hoc manner or must be included through complex iterations between one software package that models fluid flow and a separate package that models solid deformations. There are numerous field applications that would benefit from a better understanding and integration of porous flow and solid deformation. Important applications in the geosciences include environmental cleanup, petroleum production, solid waste disposal, and carbon sequestration, while similar issues arise in the biosciences and chemical sciences as well. Examples of field applications include surface subsidence, pore collapse, cavity generation, hydraulic fracturing, thermal fracturing, wellbore collapse, sand production, fault activation, and disposal of drill cuttings. The above phenomena entail both economic as well as environmental concerns.
Another important related class of problems involves CO2 sequestration, which is proposed as a key strategy for mitigating climate change driven by high levels of anthropogenic CO2 being added to the atmosphere. In a CO2 sequestration project, fluid is injected into a deep subsurface reservoir (rather than being produced or extracted), so that inflation of the reservoir leads to uplift displacement of the overlying surface. As long as a CO2 sequestration site is removed from faults, this uplift is several centimeters, while its wavelength is in tens of kilometers, so that the uplift poses little danger to buildings and infrastructure. Nevertheless the uplift displacements are of great interest for non-intrusive monitoring of CO2 sequestration, which can be measured with a sub-millimeter precision using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology. In contrast, intrusive monitoring via drill holes bored into the reservoir is expensive, with costs of several million dollars per well. Furthermore, such wells are the most likely pathway for future leakage of sequestered CO2 back into the atmosphere. Of course, if a CO2 sequestration site is close to a fault, one should be concerned about triggering instability leading to large surface displacements that may result in significant losses.